The analysis of buildings destructions shows that the most vulnerable link at the strong wind is the roof. Large size items are widely used in our country coverings of residential and public buildings in the form of large-sized sheets of metal or perforated flooring in a strong wind are subjected to dynamic loads, resulting in a large metal sheets or entire pieces of roofs from buildings demolished, creating an extreme hazard to people. Nature gave us the example of an optimal cover, easily perceiving any deformation is scaly coating. Fixed at one point, piled one on the other, the scales retain the integrity of the coating even at very large deformations of the basics. This is what drew the attention of the inquisitive Greeks in the seventh century BC, they were the first in Europe began to produce shingles. Rational Romans perfected these coatings, calling them tegula. Over time, Latin tegula transformed into English tile (tiles), French tuile (hence the name adjacent to the Louvre, Tuileries garden, i.e. workshop, where he made shingles), Spanish teja (Tex) - probably, it is the name of the state of Texas, where it arrived on the American continent by the Spaniards made tiles. In the Roman Empire, and then in all European countries tiles has become the main roofing material. In the Middle ages for different climatic zones have been developed various kinds of tiles, for example in southern Germany in the thirteenth century. spread tile type Monch-Nonnenn (monk-nun). For roofs with a greater bias often used flat tile type beaver tail, for roofs with less bias - interlocking stamped tiles with a large castle complex. It is known that in China S-shaped tile was known in the fourth century BC In the Far East is extremely widely used different shaped in shape and color curly shingles installed on the ridges and the edges of the roof, and gutters. Because of this roof in the East, in particular China, architecture has become the dominant value. In 1368-1644, widespread colour glazed tiles of various shapes. Thus art devices roofs has been brought to perfection. Their high functional and aesthetic characteristics, durability and resistance to different kinds of influences are exemplary and worthy of emulation. In the rich forests of Russia, especially in its Northern regions, similar to ceramic tiles served as wooden boards, which were fixed without a single nail on the crate, and that is why he survived for three centuries. If they were fastened with nails in four points, the result is inevitable deformations would be destroyed. In XVIII-XIX centuries the production of ceramic tiles was established in Russia, primarily in its Western regions. By the beginning of XX century, the Russian Empire was one of the largest manufacturers of tile. On the territory of the Kazan province tiles on an industrial scale was carried out in Kazan, Chistopol, Elabuga, Pestech. Important role in this was played by training and pottery workshops. Traditions tiles remained in Kazan before 1956, but the total industrialization of construction at the expense of quality, durability, economic feasibility led to their loss.
Widely used roofing metal create problems not only during hurricanes. During rain and hail, there is an effect of the drum. Without the implementation of special measures for sound insulation in attic it is impossible to live.
In the national educational literature indicates that roofing tile is heavy and deindustrialize, it is necessary to arrange a steep slope more hiraba ) for quick water drainage. Tile in the countries of Western Europe are not only widely used, but housing is the main roofing material, and the production and sale of its increase. In Germany and Italy for every 1 m2 of the input of the residential area is greater than 1 m2 of tiles, and in France more than 2 m2 . Tile is the main roofing material not only Western, but also for Central and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Asia. Everywhere, where precipitation falls as rain or snow, to cover residential buildings used mainly ceramic tile. Its share among all roofing materials exceeds 50%. With regard to the severity of the shingles, then, firstly, the roof must have a mass sufficient to extinguish the impact of rain or hail. Secondly, the weight of the tiles in the operating condition does not exceed 70 kg/m2 . At the same time, the calculated snow load, such as for Kazan, is 159 kg/cm2 . At a corresponding angle of inclination of the roof we significantly reduce snow load, and at an inclination of 60° it disappears altogether. This means that no increase in the load of the roofing tile not give. In domestic and foreign literature in detail it is shown that for each angle of the roof from 11 to 63° is the appropriate type of tile, so its variations have hundreds of sizes. This takes into account different climatic zones, rainfall, their views, prevailing winds etc., depending on the aesthetic requirements may apply different methods of laying tile. For flat tiles in each section of the roof must be at least two layers. Given that the roof is an essential element of the architecture of the buildings, colour scheme tile great importance. During the restoration of old buildings in France and Italy often exhibited requirements simulate tile XVII-XVIII centuries, and manufacturers successfully solve such tasks. Over the last decade the technology tiles have moved forward, providing the high competitiveness of this material. Extensive use of tile roofs in our country is hindered by the lack of systematic studies of raw materials for the production of tiles. Requires perfection and regulatory framework. Requirements for raw materials for the production of tiles in Russia is very ambiguous, and operational properties obviously low compared to the requirements in foreign countries. In particular, frost tile in Russia 25 cycles, and in Germany - 150. From our point of view attempts to find such deposits of clay, whose parameters are suitable for the production of high quality tiles are unpromising. The study of foreign experience, literature data indicate that for optimum composition of the raw material composition of clays from different fields. Thus, in rich clays Italy more than 70% of tile is made from a composition of clays 2-3 fields. This was done on a separate enterprises of Russia. Thus, there are no objective reasons that would prevent the spread of shingles in our country, which will certainly increase performance and aesthetic characteristics of the roofs, make them safe and durable.
Source: publisher Materials
Construction materials No. 9